The process of getting by the way of opencast mining is one of the main courses for violation and pollution of the earth surface, open and ground water and atmosphere. As a result, there in spoil dumps of mining factories in Ukraine it is accumulated more then 8 milliard ton of waste. About 360 thousand hectares of land are disturber by mining operations. Yearly from 8 to 10 thousand hectares of land are taken for opencasts and spoil dumps. The dimensions of territories, which suffer the negative influence of opencast mining, exceed the very opencasts and spoil dumps’ dimensions in 10-15 times. It yields to inefficient ecologic system’s formation in these mining regions.
Specially ought to be noted the negative influence of mining operations on the environment during the sheet ground development in Ukraine. It was already mentioned that during the getting of 1 ton of mineral deposits, it is necessary to produce from 3 to 18 cubic meters of overburdens in these occurrences. It yields not just to large amount of waste formation but also to intensive violation of lands. For example, during the getting of 1 million ton of manganese ore it is disturbed from 16 to 30 hectares of land, for brown coal – from 6 to 12 hectares, for sulphur ore – from 24 to 35 hectares.
In respect that most of occurrences are placed in high-leveled agriculture zones, it is important to note that the spread of damage for agricultural complex achieves the significant ranges, which exceed the costs for lands’ amortization and recultivation processes in several times. Over a relatively short period (last 25 years), the agricultural holdings’ per person square in Ukraine decreased from 1.08 to 0.78 hectares.
Yearly during the opencasts’ exploitation in Ukraine about 17 milliard cubic meters of open casts’ water is exhausted on day surface. Nearly half of this water is brackish water, moreover, 10% of sewage are considered to be of acid type (hydrogen ion concentration pH is below 6.5). Depending on mining and geological conditions, such water includes chlorides, sulfates, calcium and magnesium salines, ferrum and microelements. In common, every year about 80 thousand ton of suspended materials and salines are discharged by opencasts in natural reservoirs, what yields to breakdown of reservoirs’ sanitary-hygiene state. Besides, during the opencasts’ mining promotion, are significantly damaged separate components of hydrosphere.
It is enough to note that when the is height 150-200 meters, opencast’s cones of influence spread over a distance more than 15 kilometers, thus at achieving of planned depth 450-500 meters of opencasts in Krivbass, the radius of cones of influence will work out 40-50 kilometers (or even more) when its square will work out 2000 square kilometers, what will yield to regional violation of open and ground water’s regulations. Consequently, the regulations of minor rivers, lakes and other small reservoirs are disturbed; water-reducing and waterremoving works cause the land’s deformation; formation of cauldrons and flashes on the land surface; dissolution of solid of good solubility. Because of underside or outside saline-water encroachment, changes in ground waters’ nutritional conditions can yield to durable changes of their quality.
The third component of natural environment, which suffers the significant influence of opencast mining, is atmosphere. It is known that atmospheric air is one of the essential elements for natural environment. For that reason, such quick paces of industrial production development and increasing scales of human’s influence on the natural environment demand the close attention to the protection of atmospheric air. Yearly the atmospheric air gets dozens and hundreds million ton of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxides, industrial dust etc. The analyses of toxic material’s content in the atmosphere near by mining plants’ location area showed that the most polluted air is near by cokechemical and primary metals establishments, which throw airwards not just industrial dust, but also SO2 and CO , such toxins as phenol, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, phenyl hydride etc. Atmosphere pollution form the negative influence not just on flora and fauna, but also promotes the premature breakdown of mining transferring equipments. The rate of pensioned off underreinforced equipment in these regions makes 40%, which includes 7% because of corrosion. The cut of periods between repairs and costs’ increase fix the influence of atmosphere pollution on the equipments’ wearing.
That is why, the constant development of mining complex’s territory is possible just on the grounds of well-balanced development of human and environment. At that, all the principles and methods of management strategy’s development in economical and social spheres, also in region’s environment system, were subjected by new requests. The basis of strategy is the establishment of top and durative aims, the accounting of the environment’s state and the definition of its usage order.
All that demands the changes in mining complex of Ukraine.
First of all:
1) creation of high-efficiency competitive enterprises, which will provide the supply of demand for first-grade products;
2) production infrastructure’s renewal;
3) determination of investment priorities to involve native and foreign investors;
4) development and introduction of ecologicallyoriented resource-recovery technologies in opencast mining;
5) solution of problems concerning closure of uneconomical and conservancy of unpromising mining institutions.
The integrated use of occurrences and mineral raw materials, and cut of opencasts’ mining influence on the natural environment by the way of development and elaboration of ecologically-oriented resource-recovery technologies of occurrences’ exploitation is the core direction of mining complex’s development in Ukraine. To solve such problems it is necessary to identify the degree of negative influence on the environmental components of separate parts of technical and industrial opencast’s objects. The role of information support increases in such conditions.
It is necessary to follow such main principles during the elaboration of information support for stout ecosystem’s creation:
a) information support should be created as a human-computer system, wherein a personal computer functions as counter, and human – as a person to make an expert decision;
b) providing of system and information’s accord, in other words, the usage of organizational and methodological statutes’ complex, which provide the entirety of a system and subsystem during all the periods of creation, function and development;
c) openness and development of information support. Every step, which provides creation and function of the system, must provide the possibilities for addition, improving and renewal of subsystem; for replacement of every calculation module by the new one; for inclusion of additional accounts into the subsystem providing that entrance and exit information will remain the same. The principle of information support’s development may be considered as a possibility to involve the subsystem.
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