Ecological Aspects of the Quantitative Assessment of Productive Streams of Coal Mines

New economic, political and ecological situation which had developed in Ukraine, demands revision of priorities of development of the state since despite the declination in production among the European states it has the greatest integrated indicator of anthropogenic loads of surrounding environment practically on all territory. Officially recognized international status of our state concerning its ecological condition and level of environmental pollution is defined as a zone of “ecological disaster”. Based upon it, there is a complex problem of a harmonious combination of acceleration of growth rates of market economic development with need of technical modernization of the mine enterprises which would provide a condition of self-supporting use of natural resources and environmental protection.

Starting point of preservation of the natural capital  in system of formation of ecologically balanced economy in Ukraine is the determination of an ecological stock of assimilation potential of landscapes in the region. Calculations (Burkinsky 1999 & Veklich 2003), testify that in overwhelming majority of areas level economic loads of components of the landscape natural capital exceeds their assimilation potential (Table 1).

Moreover, since excess of level economic load- ings is tracked at more than 72.6% of the territory of Ukraine, it is already a problem of a national scale. The objects of fuel and energy complex functioning under continuously changing conditions of envi- ronment and in many respects depending on their dynamics, also have on it corresponding influence with many difficult predictable and not always re- versible consequences.

The coal industry which is actively destroying all vital spheres of environment is most dangerous in this regard. Burning dumps, waste heaps, an intensive dust content and an air gas contamination, reservoirs brighteners and settlers, tailing pounds, pollution of surface and ground waters, dumping in a hydrographic network of the high mineral waters, dangerous geotectonic processes and invasion into the underground hydrosphere, provoking subsidence of a terrestrial surface, bogging of areas and regions, creation of artificially increased seismicity and so forth it is far not the full list of anthropogenic pressure on environment in mining regions. Even with closing of mines of a consequence of their former activity dozens of years will negatively affect the condition of environment and safety of life of the population of territories adjoining to them.

Miner's regions are practically zones of ecological catastrophe, and the enterprises of the coal industry are classified as ecologically dangerous. According to Goskomstat of Ukraine, in the coal-mining regions of Ukraine 158 coal mines operate, each producing 1000 t of coal from 150 to 800 t of the rock which forms waste heaps occupying huge areas, leading to intensive gas dust pollution of air and chemical poisoning of surface and ground waters, and also essentially changing hydrodynamic regime and level of underground waters. Development of coal   fields   negatively  influences  hydro-chemical mode of surface activity and underground water, in- creases pollution of air space, worsens fertility of lands (Burkinsky 1999 & Veklich 2003).

The total area of the earth which has been taken away under industrial platform of the coal-mining and  coal  remanufactures  enterprises,  makes  about 22.5 thousand hectares. By data “Power strategy of Ukraine for the period till 2030”, at carrying out mountain works from coal mines annually, by different estimates, it is allocated from 750 million m3 to 2.7 billion m3 of the methane which absolute majority is absorbed by the atmosphere. Among unorganized sources of emissions special place is occupied also by dumps of rock which can light up. Volume of the mine waters which are pumped out during coal mining, nearly 600 million m3 a year whereas for economic and production needs of the enterprises  of  branch  and  for  other  consumers 250 million m3 (40%) are used only make.  Due  to the extremely unsatisfactory purification of mine waters in the rivers over 1 million t of mineral   salts is annually dissolved. It is counted up that for the prevention of negative  consequences  from activity of mines it is necessary to perform annually nature protection works for the sum of 230-240 million UAH (Bardas 2010 & Nedodayeva 2006).

All this testifies in favor of ecological certification of mines just because the coal enterprises don't make production, and allocate from the environment created without participation of the person, the finished product (coal) in the course of production occurs interaction industrial (the equipment, buildings and constructions) and natural factors and thus violation of balance of natural factors takes place. It is expressed in the following: allocation of methane, mine waters, delivery and warehousing of mine breed, violation of a terrestrial surface, including built up with the territory, under working of reservoirs, forests, etc.

Extent of this interaction depends on mine development in time both in space and from essence of  the factor (Figure 1 and 2).

Separate natural factors make on mines beneficial or adverse effect on a production activity and economic results of work of mine; for example change of capacity of a layer involves change of quantity by produced rock. At different times operation of mine is influenced by natural factors, for example increase in depth of mining, as a rule, leads to growth of gas volume and increase in released methane.

Finally work of mine is influenced by all factors  in aggregate and consequently there is a need of the accounting of their joint action. Let's consider action and value of the specified factors from the point of view of participation in production costs of production and raw materials processing. The given factors aren't commensurable among themselves directly and consequently it is inexpedient to accept for definition of joint action a cost assessment.

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